History

Why history?

History is a way of understanding the whole of the human condition as it has unfolded in time. Without history, nothing makes sense: from the meaning of words to the formation of identities, to institutions, states, and societies. History straddles the boundary between the social sciences and humanities. Like the other social sciences, it has established methods of investigation and proof, but it differs from them in that it encompasses, potentially, every area of human culture from the beginning of recorded time. Like the other humanities, it uses ordinary language and established modes of telling its stories, but it is constrained by evidence left us from the past.

Majoring in history will help you develop valuable skills transferable beyond the classroom: critical thinking, interpretation, and persuasive writing, as well as analytical and research skills for tackling complex questions. These are all essential to doing a job well after you leave Wesleyan. History is inherently complex and requires the ability to acquire knowledge from large amounts of information and assess evidence and conflicting interpretations of the past. As a history major you will learn to make sense of complexity and tell a good story.

Faculty

Paul Hilding Erickson
BA, Harvard University; MA, Univ of Wisconsin Madison; PHD, Univ of Wisconsin Madison
Associate Professor of History; Associate Professor, Environmental Studies; Associate Professor, Science in Society

Demetrius L. Eudell
BA, Dartmouth College; PHD, Stanford University
Professor of History; Chair, History; Faculty Director, Mellon Mays Undergraduate Fellowship

Courtney Fullilove
BA, Columbia University; MA, Columbia University; MPHIL, Columbia University; PHD, Columbia University
Associate Professor of History; Associate Professor, Environmental Studies; Associate Professor, Science in Society

Nathanael Greene
BA, Brown University; MA, Harvard University; MAA, Wesleyan University; PHD, Harvard University
Professor of History

Erik Grimmer-Solem
BA, Brigham Young University; DPHIL, Oxford University; MPHIL, Cambridge University; MSC, London School of Economics and Political Science
Professor of History; Tutor, College of Social Studies; Professor, German Studies

Oliver W. Holmes
BA, City College; MA, University of Chicago; MAA, Wesleyan University; PHD, University of Chicago
Professor of History

William D. Johnston
BA, Elmira College; MA, Harvard University; PHD, Harvard University
Professor of History; Academic Secretary; Professor, Science in Society; Professor, Environmental Studies; Professor, East Asian Studies

Ethan Kleinberg
BA, University of California, Berkeley; MA, University of California LA; PHD, University of California LA
Professor of History; Professor of Letters; Executive Editor, History and Theory

Jeffers Lennox
BA, University of Toronto; MA, Dalhousie University; PHD, Dalhousie University
Assistant Professor of History

Valeria López Fadul
BA, Yale University; MA, Princeton University; PHD, Princeton University
Assistant Professor of History; Assistant Professor, Latin American Studies

Bruce A. Masters
BS, Georgetown University; MAA, Wesleyan University; PHD, University of Chicago
John E. Andrus Professor of History; Professor of History; Coordinator, Middle Eastern Studies

Cecilia Miller
BA, LeTourneau College; DPHIL, Oxford University; MPHIL, University of St Andrews
Professor of History; Co-Chair, College of Social Studies; Professor, Medieval Studies; Tutor, College of Social Studies

William R. Pinch
BA, University of Virginia; MA, University of Virginia; PHD, University of Virginia
Professor of History; Associate Editor, History and Theory; Professor, Environmental Studies

Ronald W. Schatz
BA, University of Wisconsin at Madison; MAA, Wesleyan University; MAT, Harvard University; PHD, University of Pittsburgh
Professor of History

Gary Shaw
BA, McGill University; DPHIL, Oxford University
Professor of History; Associate Editor, History and Theory; Professor, Medieval Studies

Victoria Smolkin
BA, Sarah Lawrence College; PHD, University of California, Berkeley
Associate Professor of History; Tutor, College of Social Studies; Associate Professor, Russian, Eastern European, and Eurasian Studies

Ying Jia Tan
BA, University of California, Berkeley; MA, Stanford University; MPHIL, Yale University; PHD, Yale University
Assistant Professor of History; Assistant Professor, East Asian Studies

Jennifer Tucker
BA, Stanford University; MPHIL, Cambridge University; PHD, Johns Hopkins University
Associate Professor of History; Chair, Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies; Associate Professor, Environmental Studies; Associate Professor, Science in Society; Associate Professor, Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies

Laura Ann Twagira
BA, Wellesley College; MA, Sarah Lawrence College; PHD, Rutgers University
Assistant Professor of History; Assistant Professor, Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies

Affiliated Faculty

Patricia R. Hill
BA, College of Wooster; PHD, Harvard University
Professor of American Studies; Professor, History

Jesse Wayne Torgerson
BA, Biola University; MA, University of California, Berkeley; PHD, University of California, Berkeley
Assistant Professor of Letters; Assistant Professor, Medieval Studies; Assistant Professor, History

Visiting Faculty

Charles Halvorson
BA, Lewis & Clark College; MA, Columbia University; MPHIL, Columbia University; PHD, Columbia University
Visiting Assistant Professor of History

Aimee Loiselle
BA, Dartmouth College; MA, University of Vermont
Visiting Assistant Professor of History

Emeriti

Judith C. Brown
BA, University of California, Berkeley; MA, University of California, Berkeley; PHD, Johns Hopkins University
Professor of History, Emerita

Richard V. Buel
BA, Amherst College; MA, Harvard University; PHD, Harvard University
Professor of History, Emeritus

Richard H. Elphick
BA, University of Toronto; MA, University of California LA; PHD, Yale University
Professor of History, Emeritus

C. Stewart Gillmor
BS, Stanford University; MA, Princeton University; MAA, Wesleyan University; PHD, Princeton University
Professor of History and Science, Emeritus

David W. Morgan
BA, Haverford College; DPHIL, Oxford University
Professor of History, Emeritus

Laurie Nussdorfer
BA, Yale University; MA, Princeton University; MSC, London School of Economics and Political Science; PHD, Princeton University
William Armstrong Professor of History, Emerita; Professor of Letters, Emerita

Philip Pomper
BA, University of Chicago; MA, University of Chicago; MAA, Wesleyan University; PHD, University of Chicago
William Armstrong Professor of History, Emeritus

Vera Schwarcz
BA, Vassar College; MA, Yale University; MAA, Wesleyan University; PHD, Stanford University
Mansfield Freeman Professor of East Asian Studies, Emerita

Richard T. Vann
BA, Southern Methodist C; BA, Oxford University; MA, Oxford University; MA, Harvard University; MAA, Wesleyan University; PHD, Harvard University
Professor of History and Letters, Emeritus

Ann M. Wightman
BA, Duke University; MAA, Wesleyan University; MPHIL, Yale University; PHD, Yale University
Professor of History, Emerita

Departmental Advising Experts

For Fall 2018, all members of the history department on duty, except Ethan Kleinberg, Bruce Masters, William Pinch, Victoria Smolkin, Gary Shaw and Ying Jia Tan.

For Spring 2019, all members of the history department on duty, except Ethan Kleinberg, Paul Erickson and Ying Jia Tan.

HIST101F History and the Humanities (FYS)

This course offers first-year students an opportunity to explore the humanities from a variety of different disciplinary perspectives, traditionally Western as well as global, and to make connections between humanistic learning and history. The course is a small discussion seminar in which primary source materials, or classic texts, are used exclusively. An effort will be made to examine the interrelationship of ideas in the various disciplines and to compare history, literary analysis, philosophy, and theory as modes of inquiry and as ways of thinking about documents and texts. The course thereby aims to provide students with the critical tools by which to analyze texts produced in the remote or recent past. The course also serves a related purpose: to familiarize students with the heritage of Western historical tradition and to impart knowledge of the crucial role of history and the humanities as a component in general education. Students may take HIST101F without having to take HIST102F.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST102F History and the Humanities II (FYS)

This course offers first-year students an opportunity to explore the humanities from a variety of different disciplinary perspectives, traditionally Western as well as global, and to make connections between humanistic learning and history. The course is a small discussion seminar in which primary source materials, or classic texts, are used exclusively. An effort will be made to examine the interrelationship of ideas in the various disciplines and to compare history, literary analysis, philosophy, and theory as modes of inquiry and as ways of thinking about documents and texts. The course thereby aims to provide students with the critical tools by which to analyze texts produced in the remote or recent past. The course also serves a related purpose: to familiarize students with the heritage of Western historical tradition and to impart knowledge of the crucial role of history and the humanities as a component in general education. Students may take HIST102F without having taken HIST101F.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST112 Living the Latin American City: Urban History, Politics, and Culture

This course offers an introduction to modern Latin American cities, exploring how the region's urban spaces--including sprawling megalopolises like Mexico City and Rio de Janeiro--have been made and re-envisioned by elite and poor inhabitants alike. Approaching urban space and everyday life as a terrain of political and social negotiation as well as cultural ferment, the course traces the growth of Latin American cities through case studies that examine themes including colonialism, citizenship, migration, inequality, and social movements, and the tensions between state planning and informality. We also consider how the urban experience shaped intellectuals' and artists' efforts to chronicle, represent, and reimagine the Latin American city in essays, photography, and film.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST211
Prereq: None

HIST116 Environmental History: Telling Stories in Place

This course introduces students to environmental history, the study of the changing relationships between humans and nature through time. We will consider how the natural world has shaped human history; how humans have transformed the environments they have moved through, made use of, and inhabited; and how ideas about nature have shaped people's interactions with the world around them and with one another. Focusing on both historiography and methods, we will read classic and recent work in the field and learn to conduct historical research. We will also pay attention to narrative and the writing of history, through reading, in-class workshops, peer editing, and trying different kinds of historical storytelling. The central assignment will be a short research paper in which students will practice environmental history through the study of a particular place.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST117 Chinese Cities

More than half of China's population now resides in cities. Within the next few years, China plans to accelerate the rate of urbanization by building sprawling cities and relocating more people into urban areas.

This course explores the history of Chinese cities from the imperial to modern age. Cities were centers of commerce, intellectual activity, and, in the words of historian and political scientist David Strand, "storehouses of political technique, strategy, and sentiment open to anyone with the understanding and the will to inventory to exploit them." We will study how cities supported massive populations with limited resources, inspired new forms of social organization, and transformed the political and social order of China.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS269
Prereq: None

HIST123F Cinema India: South Asia's Past on Film (FYS)

This first year seminar course examines the relationship of film and history in India. We will focus on the way filmmakers represent the past and, alternatively, how films inform historical memory--particularly in the context of the competing trajectories of nationalism and globalization in South Asia. A central concern will be the historiographical challenges and opportunities of film. We will pay particular attention to Hindi cinema, especially films produced by the Bombay/Mumbai ("Bollywood") film industry since the 1950s. However we will also include the rise of "parallel" or "art" film. There will be one evening screening (Tuesdays) and two morning class sessions per week (Tuesdays and Thursdays). Films will range from classics like "Mughal-e Azam" and "Amar, Akbar, Anthony," to lesser-known works such as "Umraon Jaan," "Sangharsh," "Shatranj ke Khiladi," "Legend of Bhagat Singh," and "Rang de Basanti," to more recent blockbusters such as "Lagaan," "Hey Ram," "Jodhaa Akbar," "Bajirao Mastani," and "Rangoon."
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST124F The Making of the Modern American Landscape (FYS)

This course explores the history of modern America embedded in the world around us. From the story of industrialization told by the paper mills along the Connecticut River to the legacy of racist exclusion built into the Long Island Parkway, this course will teach students to interpret the physical landscape as a historical source as part of a broader introduction to the field of history in its many forms.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST129 Philosophy and the Movies: The Past on Film

This course examines how films represent the past and how they can help us understand crucial questions in the philosophy of history. We begin with three weeks on documentary cinema. How do documentary films achieve "the reality effect"? How has the contemporary documentary's use of reenactment changed our expectations of nonfiction film? Much of the course is devoted to classic narrative films that help us critically engage questions about the depiction of the past. We think about those films in relation to texts in this history of philosophy and contemporary film theory.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-FILM
Identical With: FILM360, PHIL160
Prereq: None

HIST130F North American Borderlands (FYS)

North American Borderlands explores the physical, social, political, cultural, and economic spaces that borders create and purport to divide. The course covers a long history and a wide variety of material - with subjects ranging from 17th-century contests between Algonquian peoples and Dutch traders along the saltwater frontier to the Gilded Age story of a Texas slave who reinvented himself as a Mexican millionaire, to the sulfur dioxide that blew up from U.S. power plants to fall as acid rain in Canada and sour relations between the two nations in the 1980s. By the end of the course, students will be able to recognize borderlands as distinctive spaces of conflict, exchange, dispossession, and opportunity.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST135 American Food

This course investigates topics in the history of food production from the colonial period to the present, with emphasis on the American contribution to the development of world food systems and cultures of consumption. Topics to be addressed include the production of agricultural commodities, development of national markets, mass production of food, industrialization of agriculture, and the recent emergence of organics, slow food, and local movements.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: ENVS135
Prereq: None

HIST140 Virtue and Vice in History, Literature, and Philosophy

Beginning with Aristotle and Confucius and reading our way through significant texts of Christianity, humanism, postmodernism, and contemporary cultural productions, we will explore the ethics, power, and politics interesecting in the idea of virtue.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-COL
Identical With: CHUM228, COL228, PHIL112
Prereq: None

HIST141 Theories and Models

This class will focus on how theories and models are designed and regarded across the university curriculum--in the humanities, the social sciences, and the sciences. This topic is particularly pertinent to intellectual history, a subject that regularly uses texts from across the modern university curriculum as its primary readings. Given the range of intellectual history, both in terms of chronology and subject matter, intellectual history could be argued to be the subject best positioned to consider the process of making theory.

Questions to be addressed include: What are some of the unexpected results of the increased use of mathematics and computers even in the humanities and social sciences, not just in the sciences, and how has this changed the relationship of theory and models for each of these disciplines? To what extent does the debate about the refutability, the falsifiability--or truth status--of models indicate an ongoing need for theory? The specific modern academic subjects to be examined will be philosophy, economics, and physics. Thomas Kuhn's THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS (1962) will serve as a starting point for this study; however, most of the readings during the semester will be much more recent.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST151 Introduction to History: The "Russian World" Past and Present

The "Russian World" has become a central--though deeply ambiguous and contested--theme in contemporary political discourse both within and beyond Russia. This course will offer a survey of how different conceptions of the "Russian World" have been articulated and deployed over time by following the history of Russian lands and peoples from the eighth century to the present day. This course is one of the gateways to the history major and is intended especially for first- and second-year students. As an introduction to history, the course will introduce students to the discipline of history by examining the historical sources, concepts, theories, and methods necessary for reading and writing history.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST154 Introduction to History: Twelve Medieval People

This course is one of the gateways to the history major. It is also an introduction to the Middle Ages through a study of 12 exemplary medieval lives and minds, spanning a thousand years of history. We focus on people--bodies, minds, and souls--coping with history and creating sense for their world. The course will typically feature one person or pair per week, and by examining their writings or stories and the contexts in which these were produced, the nature of medieval life, the pressure on the self, the articulation of gender and ethics for the entire period will come into view. Among the figures studied are likely to be St. Augustine, Queen Brunhild, St. Anselm, Abelard, Heloise, William Marshal, King Louis IX, Dante, Catherine of Siena, Christine de Pisan, Joan of Arc, Margery Kempe, and Pope Pius II.

As an introduction to history course, we will also offer an examination of the basic concepts, techniques, and skills for reading, understanding, and writing history: documents and archives, text and context, sceptical inquiry, argument construction, and an interest in good and expressive writing.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST170 Introduction to History: American Material Culture

This course introduces students to the study of history through an investigation of American material culture and the built environment from the pre-colonial period to the present. The course is structured around Friday site visits in the New England and mid-Atlantic regions, including the Pequot Museum, Mystic Seaport, Central Park, New York City waterfront, Fresh Kills, and local suburbs. Students will consider theories and methods of studying history through objects, landscapes, and architecture. We will consider how changing patterns of settlement and land use shaped human and natural ecology, and how people fashioned cultures and communities through the fabrication, circulation, and use of a wide range of natural and human-made objects.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST172 Introduction to History: Germany from Napoleon to the Berlin Republic

Germany witnessed more dramatic and radical changes in forms of government within the span of just 31 years (1918¿-1949) than any other modern society in history, yet today it is a model democracy and an anchor of peace and prosperity in the heart of Europe. Germans are credited for extraordinary achievements in the arts, sciences, and industry, yet they also produced some of history's darkest chapters. This introductory course surveys the fascinating and turbulent history of modern Germany to analyze the sources of these contradictions. We will begin by locating the birth of modern Germany in the massive social and political upheavals of the Napoleonic era that set the stage for the rise of German nationalism and rapid industrialization. We will study the unlikely processes that resulted in German unification in 1871 and how Germany's nationalism, growing industrial power, and its deep internal divisions led to a policy of aggressive imperialism that contributed to the outbreak of the World War I. The course will analyze the profound impact of that war and defeat on German society, situating both the Weimar Republic and the rise of Hitler in that context. We will subsequently study Nazism, the World War II, and the Holocaust, as well as the ultimate destruction of Germany as sovereign state with its surrender and military occupation in 1945. The remainder of the course explores the phoenixlike rebirth of two competing German states in the Cold War and the subsequent parallel development and divergence of two German societies. We will conclude the course by analyzing the process that led to German reunification in 1990 and the lines of development of the "Berlin Republic" since that time. The aims of the course are to introduce students to historical primary sources, the skills of historical analysis, and the questions of historiography through a coherent introductory survey of modern German history.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: GRST272
Prereq: None

HIST175 Introduction to History: The Atlantic World to 1850

The early modern Atlantic World was an interconnected place. Some of its citizens, such as Samuel Champlain, made dozens of crossings. For others, including hundreds of Indigenous peoples, thousands of settlers, and many more slaves, the voyage was one way. Yet in a pre-national era it was the Atlantic that linked residents in Europe, Africa, and the Americas. This class will explore the nature of the Atlantic World from its beginnings in the fifteenth century to the dawn of a more "global" age around 1850. Exploration, cultural interaction, trade, concepts of sex and gender, slavery, war, and revolutions were Atlantic phenomena. Ideas, like currents, circulated from one shore to the next. Critical reading of academic articles and primary sources will enable us to explore the Atlantic Ocean as a highway (for administrators), a goldmine (for pirates), a death sentence (for slaves), and much more.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST176 Introduction to History: Science in the Making: Thinking Historically About Science

This course introduces students to a range of perspectives--drawn from history, sociology, anthropology, geography, media studies, and literary studies, among others--on how to write about the history of science. Throughout, the emphasis is on understanding the relationship between the histories of science we can tell and the materials that our histories draw upon, from publications and archival documents to oral histories, material culture, and film. In addition to reading academic literature, students will gain practical experience working with historical sources and conducting original research. They will also familiarize themselves with new digital tools for presenting historical materials by developing a course website that showcases their research projects.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP276
Prereq: None

HIST180 Introduction to History: Introduction to Japanese History

Countries seem to be forever. We tend to forget that in fact they are processes rather than things. They are abstractions that exist as imagined communities, and as such they change greatly over time. This course focuses on how one country, Japan, emerged from a string of islands that could have well become several countries in the same way Scotland, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Ireland exist in the British Isles. The central questions in this course are, How did Japan happen? How has Japan changed over time?

Starting with prehistoric times, we consider how the early cultures and peoples on the Japanese archipelago coalesce to become "Japan" for the first time in the late seventh century and how those cultures and peoples adopted new identities, systems of power relations, and economies up to the present. While this course examines the big picture, to understand it, the factual pixels that constitute it require close examination. As a consequence, evaluations include a map quiz and in-class tests that require a mastery of both factual detail and analytical skill. Evidence considered will be both textual and visual.

This course's main goal is to present the fundamentals of Japanese history and culture, developing a familiarity with the ecology, geography, cultural traditions, and historical development of the Japanese archipelago. Through the text, special emphasis is given to ecological change.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST186 Introduction to History: Gandhi and the Raj

The "Raj"---India's subjection to Britain in the 19th and early 20th centuries---was the world that gave rise to Mahatma Gandhi, and the world that Gandhi subsequently overturned. In this "introduction to history" course, students will examine the making, unmaking, and remaking of the Raj, and Gandhi's central role in that process. We will begin with the Rebellion of 1857 and end with the assassination of Gandhi in 1948, a year after the Partition of British India into the independent nation-states of India and Pakistan.

This is an Introduction to History course intended especially for first- and second-year students who are interested in the past and, perhaps, who are even (though not necessarily) contemplating history major. As such, it will introduce students to the discipline by reflecting on the nature of historical evidence, how to use an archive, and how to craft a historical argument.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST195 Mellon Mays Seminar

This course is for participants in the Mellon Mays Undergraduate Fellowship program. It is designed to introduce students to the requirements and rigors of graduate school. A central focus of the seminar will be to develop a research project on which the students would work over a two-year period.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 0.50
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST201 Medieval Europe

This introductory lecture course is a history of European politics, culture, and institutions from the end of the Roman Imperial era through 1520. Within a chronological framework we will focus on the creation of kingdoms and government; the growth and crises of papal-dominated Christianity¿its crusades and its philosophy;¿the rise and role of the knight, lady, and aristocratic culture; masculinity and gender relations; the crises of the later Middle Ages, including the Black Death, heresy, mysticism, and war. These all contributed to the beginnings of the Renaissance and the Reformation, events that ended the medieval period. We will also at least glance at the borderlands of Europe, the edges of Islamic and Orthodox worlds.

The course will also provide students with basic introductory exposure to the ideas and methods of the digital humanities through course illustrations and discussions. This will probably include exercises in visualizing the past, exposure to geographic information systems (GIS) analysis, text-mining, and network analysis.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: MDST204
Prereq: None

HIST202 Early Modern Europe

This introductory course surveys the history of Europe during the formative period of the modern era from 1500 to 1800. It focuses on the crucial episodes of religious and political conflicts and highlights key intellectual, cultural, and economic developments: the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Reformation, the English civil war, absolutism, enlightened despotism, the rise of capitalism and plantation slavery, the scientific revolution, the Enlightenment, and the French Revolution. Representing one of the required modules for the history major, this course also provides essential historical grounding for any student interested in study abroad and in modern culture and politics.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST203 Modern Europe

This course surveys the history of Europe since 1815 and is intended primarily as an introduction to decisive events and interpretation of central themes. Attention will be devoted to major political, social, economic, and cultural developments, beginning with the many dimensions of the political and industrial revolutions of the 19th century; continuing with the emergence of nation-states and nationalism, working-class movements, the consequences of imperialism and the World War I, and communism and fascism; and concluding with study of the World War II, the reassertion of Europe, the collapse of the Soviet system, and contemporary issues.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST204 Greek History

Using primary sources wherever possible, this course will examine the development of Greek civilization from Mycenaean times through the death of Alexander the Great. Special attention will be given to the connection between political events and cultural and intellectual trends. No prior acquaintance with ancient history is required.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-CLAS
Identical With: CCIV231
Prereq: None

HIST205 Roman History

This course traces the history of Rome from its foundation, through its rise as an Italic and Mediterranean power, up to the transfer of the empire to Constantinople. It focuses on the political, military, and social achievements of the Roman people and the contributions of its principal historical figures, from the legendary kings of the regal period, to Republican leaders such as Marius, Sulla, Pompey, and Caesar, through Augustus and the establishment of the principate and subsequent emperors such as Vespasian, Hadrian, and Diocletian.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-CLAS
Identical With: CCIV232
Prereq: None

HIST207 Japan Since 1868: Society and Culture in Modern Japanese History

This course examines the history of Japan from roughly 1800 to the present. With a broad-ranging observation covering politics, economy, society, culture, and foreign relations, we will look at a variety of historical events that the Japanese people experienced. Our goal is not only to understand what happened when, but also to be concerned with how people at different historical stages saw the world around them. Major historical events, trends, ideas, and people will constitute the vital part of the course; however, we will also inquire into everyday life of ordinary people, whose names do not remain in historical records. We will use a wide range of materials including written sources available in the English language, films, literature, and comics.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS265
Prereq: None

HIST210 Jews & America

This course will investigate why Jews came to America and how they and their children adapted to their new home. It will explore American Jews' relations with other groups, including the Irish Americans, African Americans and the white Anglo-Saxon Protestant elite, and Jews in other parts of the world. Finally, the course will consider Jews' quite significant impact on the American economy, politics, society, and culture. Although it will begin with the colonial era, the course will focus primarily on the 19th and especially the 20th centuries.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CJST210
Prereq: None

HIST211 Digital History

This course offers an introduction to the emerging field of digital history, part of the broader digital humanities (DH), the application of computing techniques and new media to humanities disciplines. DH has important implications for teaching, research, and the presentation of cultural artifacts to the scholarly and general public. Digital humanists employ a wide-ranging set of techniques, from text- and data-mining to network analysis, topic modeling, GIS, and visualizations. DH also offers opportunities for cross-disciplinary collaborations among humanists, computer scientists, media specialists, and others. As a result, this course seeks to bring together students with a variety of skills and backgrounds (e.g. history, writing, programming, web and graphic design, sound and video) who share an interest in historical communication and making things.

Through readings, conversations, and hands-on work with DH tools and historical resources, we will examine questions pertinent to historical scholarship and consider how they may be reconfigured by new media and new applications of computing power. How does DH allow us to ask new questions as historians, and what perils do digital techniques pose for the discipline of history? Together, we will cultivate our skills as practitioners of history in the digital age.

A central component of the course will be collaborative DH projects of our own devising. Much of the course will have the character of a digital history research lab as we take real problems and relevant sources to advance historical knowledge as well as our skills. This might involve projects in which we conceive, design, build, publicize, and launch a tool, website, or other contribution to digital history. Students should be prepared to collaborate in and out of class, to teach and learn from each other, and to cope with a dynamic and flexible syllabus and group of tasks.

This course is part of Wesleyan's Digital and Computational Knowledge Initiative.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: COL370
Prereq: None

HIST212 Modern Africa

What is African Modernity? We will examine this question as we survey the major historical transformations in Africa since approximately 1800. Important themes include: African political innovations, the abolition of the slave trade and its effects, European colonialism, African adaptation and resistance, nationalism and decolonization, and Africa's role in shaping major global events. We will also study the impacts of religious and social transformations amid rapid economic and political change. Finally, we will examine African visions for post-colonial development and how to shape the future of the continent.

During the semester we will also cover some of the issues surrounding African history as a discipline. No single course can cover more than a sliver of the complexity and variety in the continent. For this reason, we approach the study of Modern Africa as comparative history. However, students satisfactorily completing this course will be able to write knowledgeably about African history and will have the foundation necessary to undertake further study about Africa with sensitivity to the complexity of its recent past.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: AFAM212
Prereq: None

HIST214 The Modern and the Postmodern

In this course we will examine how the idea of "the modern" develops at the end of the 18th century and how being modern (or progressive, or hip) became one of the crucial criteria for understanding and evaluating cultural change during the last 200 years. Our readings will be drawn from a variety of areas--philosophy, novels, music, painting, and photography--and we will be concerned with the relations between culture and historical change. Finally, we shall try to determine what it means to be modern today and whether it makes sense to go beyond the modern to the postmodern.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-HIST
Identical With: COL214, CHUM214
Prereq: None

HIST215 European Intellectual History to the Renaissance

This class will examine some of the major texts in Western thought from ancient Greece to the Renaissance. Emphasis will be placed on close reading and analysis of the texts.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: MDST225
Prereq: None

HIST216 European Intellectual History since the Renaissance

This class will examine some of the major texts in Western thought since the Renaissance. Emphasis will be placed on close reading and analysis of the texts.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: COL332
Prereq: None

HIST216L European Intellectual History since the Renaissance- Service Learning

This class will examine some of the major texts in Western thought since the Renaissance. Emphasis will be placed on close reading and analysis of the texts.

This course is designed for Service Learning. Students in this course will read short selections about Aging, meet with a specific senior citizen to talk about the books we are reading for class (5 times in the semester), and write 2-page papers responding to those meetings. Otherwise, both History 216L and History 216 will have the same class requirements.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: COL332L
Prereq: None

HIST217 Africa to 1800

In this course, we will examine how ancient Africa has been imagined in the past, by Africans, early observers, and contemporary scholars. We begin with prehistory and the myths and misrepresentations of Africans that have come out of early European imaginings of Africa. Ideas about "pygmies" and "bushmen" have often been used to write about an Africa without a past or to inscribe people on the continent in a static, primordial past. We examine the problems of these representations and the ways that scholars are now unpacking the complicated histories of early African societies. However, this course covers a broad span of time and space on the continent. For this reason, we will only be able to touch upon some of the larger issues for thinking about ancient Africa.

We will move roughly chronologically from human origins to end our journey in the period of early European contact. Changing technologies, means of production, the manipulation of the environment, and trade are all bound up in these histories. As we trace a history of early Africa in the world, we will also pay close attention to gender. As we examine these issues, we will consider several methods for writing early African histories: linguistic, archaeological, ecological, and oral traditions.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST219 Russian and Soviet History, 1881 to the Present

Reversals of fortune have defined Russian history perhaps more so than for any other nation. Though the Russian Empire began the 19th century as an emerging European superpower that defeated Napoleon, it ended that same century as a backward state plagued by political, economic, and social strife that ultimately brought the Romanov dynasty to a revolutionary collapse. A similar trajectory describes the "short" Soviet 20th century that began with the promise of a qualitatively new political order that sought to transform social relations and human nature and concluded with a spectacular implosion that some heralded as the end of history itself.

This course will follow the story of how the Soviet Union emerged from the ruins of the Russian imperial order to become the world's first socialist society, the most serious challenge to imperialism, liberalism, and capitalism, and, arguably, modernity's greatest political experiment. We will cover the following topics: the emergence and fate of Russian national identity; the origins and dynamics of Russia's revolutions; the political, economic, and cultural challenges of the Soviet project; the role of the party and ideology in politics and everyday life; the nationalities question and the challenges of governing a socialist empire; Soviet victory in the Great Patriotic War and the rebirth of the nation (and nationalism); the emergence of the Soviet Union as a Cold War superpower; the country's historic attempts to reform (and the frequent failure of these attempts); and the dynamics of the system's collapse.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: REES219
Prereq: None

HIST220 France Since 1870

This course studies France under three republics and a dictatorship, beginning with defeat in war and revolutionary upheaval in 1870¿-1871 and concluding with apparent political and social stability and European partnership in the first years of the 21st century. We will survey the history of 145 years, emphasizing political forms, ideologies and movements, social change, the economy, and cultural developments. Particular consideration will be given to revolutionary ideas and activities, working-class organizations, conservative thought and action, the city of Paris, rural life, the experiences of three wars against Germany, imperialism and decolonization, and styles of leadership. Times of emergency and crisis will also command attention, specifically the Paris Commune of 1871; the Dreyfus Affair of the 1890s; the Great War of 1914¿-1918; the Popular Front of the 1930s; the military defeat of 1940; the drama of collaboration or resistance, 1940¿-1944; and the early years of the Fifth Republic, 1958¿-1969.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: FIST220
Prereq: None

HIST221 History of Ecology

The word "ecology" has come to have many meanings and connotations: a scientific field dealing with the relation of organisms and the environment, a way of thinking about the world emphasizing holism and interconnection, a handmaiden of the environmental movement, to name a few. This course covers the history of ecology as a scientific discipline from the 18th-century natural history tradition to the development of population, ecosystem, and evolutionary ecology in the 20th century, situating the science in its cultural, political, and social contexts. Along the way, it traces the connections between ecology and economic development, political theory, ideas about society, the management of natural resources, the preservation of wilderness, and environmental politics. How have scientists, citizens, and activists made use of ecological ideas, and to what ends? How have they understood and envisioned the human place in nature? How have the landscapes and places in which ecologists have done their work shaped their ideas? Other major themes include the relationship between theories of nature and theories of society, ecology and empire, the relationship between place and knowledge about nature, the development of ecology as a professional discipline, the role of ecologists as environmental experts, the relationship between the state and the development of ecological knowledge, and the relationships among ecology, conservation, agriculture, and environmentalism.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP221, ENVS211
Prereq: None

HIST222 Disease and Epidemics in Historical Perspective

Disease and epidemics have been powerful agents of historical change as well as determinants of human development before the advent of historical records. In this lecture course we will examine how diseases have changed human societies over time, with special attention given to the place of disease-causing organisms, from viruses to parasites, in the ecological networks they make home. Yet at the same time, we will keep in mind the ways in which human society and culture also have important causal roles in human disease. HIV, for example, arose because of human interactions with animals but reached pandemic proportions, in part, because of cultural, social, and political forces.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP222
Prereq: None

HIST223 History of Traditional China

This course introduces students to the history of China from ancient times to the middle of the Ming Dynasty, ca 1450. This is a period when China invented and reshaped its cultural identity by moving into new frontiers and creatively incorporating foreign ideas with indigenous practices. How did the Chinese and their neighbors understand what it meant to be a faithful spouse, self-sacrificing warrior, righteous official, or a loyal friend?
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS223
Prereq: None

HIST224 Modern China: States, Transnations, Individuals, and Worlds

This course examines China's turbulent transition to modernity. It covers the Ming-Qing transition, Manchu conquest of central Eurasia, China's conflict and engagement with the West, birth of China's first republic, and the People's Republic of China under Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, and his successors.

The dramatic transformation of China spanning the late 19th century to the present day is the focus of this course. The Chinese people today continue to deal with the legacy of these reforms, wars, and revolutions, as China's leaders and people dealt with unprecedented challenges. The three central themes of this course are (1) the reconstitution of (a somewhat) unified China after decades of political upheaval, (2) China's vulnerabilities in the face of domestic troubles and threats from abroad, and (3) the challenges of maintaining a high-growth economy with scarce resources.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS224
Prereq: None

HIST225 Modern East Asia: Continuities and Discontinuities in the Global Context

This course is an introduction to East Asian civilization, as well as to ways through which one can examine and understand the historical roots of current affairs in and related to East Asia. The course will help students to explore not only the dramatic changes in politics, culture, and society during the past centuries, but also their impact on people's lives in contemporary East Asia. We will learn how to use various sources, such as official documents, biographical literature, films, newspapers and magazines, to study three major themes: (1) changes and continuity in modern East Asia (with a focus on historical, social, and cultural aspects); (2) interactions between East Asian countries; and (3) East Asia in the world (with a focus on the encounters between East Asia and the West).
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS274
Prereq: None

HIST226 Queen Mothers, Unruly Women: Histories of Gender and Sexuality in Africa

The 1929 Women's War is a touchstone for women's history in Africa. By 'sitting on a man' women in Nigeria shocked colonial authorities and demanded economic rights and a public voice. These unruly women danced in protest and rioted (sometimes nude), but their actions were not uncommon sights for their African audience. African women across the continent had long wielded power as queen mothers, prophets, and traders. Others challenged the constraints of ordinary domestic life through their labor, dress, or spirit possession.

Gender and contested authority are central to everyday life and politics in Africa. In this course, we will study the history of political and domestic authority on the continent with special consideration for the ways in which gender, sexuality, and power intersect. These histories are diverse both in time and place. For this reason, this course will not present a single narrative of gender in African history. However, students who satisfactorily complete the course will be able to write knowledgeably about the major debates surrounding gender and sexuality in Africa. Major themes include: spiritual authority; domestic and sexual life; the division of labor; and the impact of colonial rule and post-colonial politics. We will examine how women (and also men) have grappled with these intricate social and political relations from the pre-colonial period into the post-colonial era.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: FGSS227
Prereq: None

HIST230 Constantinople: From Rome to Istanbul

Constantinople was founded by a Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 330. From there the story gets complicated. Should we account for Constantinople from a Western point of view and call it Roman? Or, should we label it by its Eastern religion and call it Christian? Or, should we see Constantinople's true nature in a transnational Hellenic culture and call it Byzantine? Then, once we have chosen a story to explain the city's nature, how should it end? With the pillaging fourth crusade in 1204, or the Ottoman sack in 1453, or is Constantinople yet alive in modern Istanbul? This course diverges from such narrative frameworks by accounting for Constantinople as, first and foremost, a city. Together we will explore the rich, unevenly distributed, textual and material relics of this medieval metropolis and contribute our finds to a collaborative digital database. Students will draw from this database to craft their own histories, applying both imagination and analysis into a believable and reliable story conveying the diversities and paradoxes of life in The City.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-COL
Identical With: COL128, MDST128
Prereq: None

HIST231 Islamic Civilization: The Classical Age

This course surveys the historical development of Islamic civilization from the time of the Prophet Muhammad to the rise of the "gunpowder empires" of the 16th century. Special emphasis will be placed on the unique cultural forms this civilization developed and the emergence of Islam as a world religion. This course primarily deals with the political, intellectual, and social history of the Muslim peoples of the Middle East and only secondarily with Islam as a system of religious belief.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: MDST251
Prereq: None

HIST232 Turkey and the Balkans, 1453 to present

The Balkan Peninsula physically lies in Europe but it has long been a geographical and cultural bridge between western Asia and Europe. Since Antiquity its past has been linked to its near neighbor Turkey. Starting with the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, this course will survey the history of the two regions through the Ottoman centuries and the rise of national independence movements in the 19th century. It will then survey the continuing political, social, and ethnic conflicts in the regions in the 20th century, first under Fascism and then Communism, and finally the re-emergent nationalisms of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The central question posed by this course is: How do the various peoples in this part of the world remember their past and how do these conflicting narratives shape their present?
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST234 The Modern Middle East

This course surveys the history, culture, and religion of the contemporary Middle East. Emphasis is on the historical roots of current problems. These include the Arab-Israeli conflict, Westernization vs. Islam, U.S. involvement in the region, Turkish and Kurdish nationalisms, and the Sunni-Shia divide within Islam. Finally, the course will address the causes of the Arab Spring and discuss the ongoing turmoil, including the rise of Da'ish/Islamic State, that reform movements unleashed.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST235 Enlightenment Concept of the Self

This course explores several Enlightenment thinkers who grappled to understand the paradoxes of the self at a time when traditional religious and metaphysical systems were disintegrating. As we explore these issues, readings will be drawn from primary texts in philosophy and literature.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST236 Religion and National Culture in the United States

This lecture/discussion course offers sustained analysis of the role of religion in the intellectual life of the nation. We will examine both the work of American theologians and the ways that other American intellectuals have thought about religion and its function as a language of authority in both state and society. We will consider the ramifications of conceptions of the United States as a Protestant and millennial nation and the challenges to that conception posed by the growing diversity of religions in the country. The variety of spiritual practices and the clashes between religion and science generated debates that continue to haunt both the study of religion and political life. From participation in a transatlantic evangelical culture to the rise of the social gospel and theological modernism through the fundamentalist response to liberal religion and Darwinism, the course charts the influence of Protestant Christianity in American culture and evaluates claims about the development of a distinctively American religious style. The replacement of overt anti-Catholicism and anti-Semitism with the notion of a Judeo-Christian heritage that celebrated the incorporation of Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish traditions into American civil religion figures as the central dynamic of the 20th century. The course concludes with a consideration of contemporary religious developments, including New Age formations and the growing presence of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam, and the continuing centrality of religion(s) in the national culture.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: AMST236, RELI285
Prereq: None

HIST237 Early North America to 1763

From the arrival of the earliest fishing ships off the coast of Newfoundland to the fall of New France at the close of the Seven Years' War, North America was the site of entangled encounters. Overlapping imperial claims and the construction of new societies took place on a continent long inhabited by powerful Indigenous groups. This course will examine North America as a contested and negotiated territory in which imperial plans were subjected to local contexts and contingencies. Using primary and secondary sources, we will examine major events (explorations, encounters, and wars), the rise and fall of imperial powers (French, British, Dutch, and Spanish), and the daily realities that shaped experiences in North America (trade, religion, sex, forced migrations, and disease).
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: AMST284
Prereq: None

HIST238 Liberty and Loyalism: Reconfiguring North America in the Age of Revolution, 1774-1848

At the end of the Seven Years' War, Britain found itself in possession of a huge swath of North America peopled by French Catholics, Indigenous nations, and British American subjects. In the years that followed, British North America was torn apart by revolution (which created the United States) and rebuilt by loyalists (who challenged the government at every turn).

This course will examine the revolution that fractured North America, the entangled development of the New Republic and the loyal British colonies, and the experiences of British subjects, American citizens, French inhabitants, and Indigenous peoples, all of whom worked to shape their environment as best they could. From political leaders to slaves, wealthy merchants to poor farmers, British monarchs to Indigenous sachems, this course will explore North America as it was understood by those who lived during a period of intense social and political upheaval.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST239 The Long 19th Century

In 1787, the ratification of the Constitution established the United States of America as a republic in which power rested with the people. But the slim document left many fundamental questions unanswered. Would the overwhelmingly agricultural country be one of small yeoman farmers or large-scale plantations? Would the new nation limit western expansion to honor treaties with American Indian groups? Should the growing ranks of wage laborers in the nation's burgeoning cities have the same political rights as property owners? Would a nation founded on the shores of the Atlantic World pursue closer integration into global trade or protect its craftsmen and nascent industrial manufacturers? Could women make a claim to civic participation in a nation whose liberty they had helped win? Would a nation dedicated to freedom be able to reconcile the bondage of one-fifth of its total population?

The Long 19th Century explores the history of the United States from the Early Republic to the Progressive Era (1787-1900), as an array of different groups and competing interests attempted to answer these questions. The period witnessed an incredible expansion of the United States from one of several imperial claimants in North America to the dominant power on the continent. Simultaneous to this expansion in geographic scope, the 19th century saw a shift in the scale of governance from a limited government to a powerful federal state that abolished property rights in slavery and intervened in struggles between labor and capital. In following that expansion and shift, this course explains the evolution of the modern United States.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST240 The United States Since 1901

"I am certain that history has equipped modern American liberalism with the ideas and the knowledge to construct a society where men will be both free and happy." - Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., January 1949

This course will explore the history of the United States from 1901 until recent times. The central focus will be on politics and society, although economics, foreign relations, war, intellectual trends, ethnic and racial relations, and other topics will also be discussed. The unifying theme will be the emergence of modern liberalism during the Progressive Era and its dominance in American politics and thought by the mid-20th century. Although intellectuals hostile to the New Deal and liberalism emerged in the 1930s and 1940s, as time passed, conservative ideas and organizations acquired increasing influence, ultimately conquering the Republican Party and changing the Democratic Party as well. Thus, political divisions that emerged in the 1890s continue to this day.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: AMST230
Prereq: None

HIST241 From Romanus Pontifex (1454) to Black Lives Matter: Race and the Formation of the Modern World

This course investigates the belief system of race from its emergence in the 15th century in the wake of European expansion into Africa and the Americas to contemporary dynamics both in the Americas and globally. Rather than viewing this phenomenon in the liberal humanist terms of race relations or more recently of diversity and multiculturalism, or as merely a function ostensibly more fundamental issues (e.g. class), this course proposes to analyze race not only as a central mechanism instituting Western societies, but also as one form of how humans have organized and reproduced their social orders.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST242 World History

Using multimedia, material culture, visual sources, primary texts, and a textbook, this course will give students a solid understanding of World History from River Valley Civilizations, the Classical Period, and the Post-Classical Period, to the Early-Modern Period, the Long 19th Century, and the Contemporary Period. Emphasis will be placed on the development of major cultures around the world -- and there will also be discussion of how the major cultures fail to explain much of World History.   

In practical terms, students will learn how to assess a broad range of historical sources from varied places and times; how to debate these works in class discussion; how to produce concise and precise short papers; how to write longer papers based on an argument/counter-argument format; and how to work collaboratively on the group project.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST245 Modern Latin America Since 1810

This lecture course explores some of the main themes of Latin America's modern history from the beginning of the independence movements in the 19th century until the present day. In particular, it traces the contentious processes of state-formation and the creation of national and regional identities. Governments, elites, and popular movements fought over questions of race, economic development, and inequality in their attempts to formulate a particular vision of the nation. We will contextualize these struggles in global economic transformations and pay particular attention to the rise of the United States as force in the region.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST245
Prereq: None

HIST246 France at War, 1934--1944

Beginning with a Parisian riot widely understood to be a fascist insurrection in 1934, followed immediately by massive popular protests from the Left, France entered a decade in which it was at war with itself, often characterized as a Franco-French civil war. These were years of uncommon political engagement, disappointments, struggle, and multiple disasters. A divided France encountered the menace of another European war, concluding with its astonishing defeat in 1940 by Nazi Germany. This seminar explores the ideological antagonisms that shaped French life during the Popular Front, a broad alliance of the Left, 1934--1938, and during the German occupation, 1940--1944, when French authorities collaborated with the occupier. We will consider interpretation and memory of these dark years and draw upon documents, films, memoirs, and journalistic accounts.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST251 Empires in World History

Empires have dominated the political landscape across the globe for much of human history. But how did they come into being? More importantly, what strategies were used to maintain them? This course examines the history of five empires--Roman, Mongol, Ottoman, Aztec, and British--to see whether patterns emerge that might explain why a particular imperial project was successful and why it ultimately failed. In reviewing the history of each empire, we will discuss its ideology, military technology, economy, gender roles, and treatment of subject peoples to create a comparative framework in which to place empires in a global context.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST252 Industrializations: Commodities in World History

This course defines "industrialization" broadly to encompass the development and application of systematic knowledge to agriculture and manufacturing in 18th- to 21st-century societies. Although special attention will be devoted to the British and American examples, the course will be organized by commodity rather than nationality, focusing on traffic in materials used in production of food, clothing, and medicines, for example, cotton, rubber, guano, wheat, bananas, and quinine.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: ENVS252
Prereq: None

HIST253 Slavery, Race, and Indigeneity in Early America

This course examines the intersection of slavery, race and indigeneity in the early Americas, with special emphasis on this history in New England. The course will explore the lived experiences of the Indigenous and black founding population groups with the central role that their presence played in the politics and economics of imperial encounters and nation-state formation.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST254 Science in Western Culture

This course offers an introduction to the history of the sciences between the late 17th and early 20th centuries, with the aim of understanding the varied ways of knowing that have come to be called "science" and how they have attained such an important status in shaping modern Western culture. To do so, we will both investigate key intellectual developments--such as Newtonianism, theories of energy and matter, and the rise of evolutionary thought--and consider these ideas in the cultural contexts in which they developed to better understand how people have "done science" in different times and places.

Throughout, we will pay attention to the relationships between science and other knowledge systems, between scientists and nonscientists, and between science and state power by exploring the changing nature of scientific authority, the cultural status of the scientist, and the connections among science, commerce, technology, and empire.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP254
Prereq: None

HIST256 Japan and the Atomic Bomb: History, Myths, and Mysteries

Even today, when discussing the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, newspaper and other media sources often refer to "Truman's decision" to drop the bomb, the idea that these bombings conclusively brought an end to World War Two, arguments that they saved more lives than they killed, and assertions that the United States would not have dropped the bomb on Germany since its citizens were white. But what do the historical sources actually say on these and other related points? This course emphasizes the use of archival sources to address these and many other issues. It establishes the historical context for the atomic bombings of Japan by tracing events that led to the War in the first place, how civilians became the targets of mass bombings, and the scientific discoveries that made nuclear weapons possible. It also examines how after the War the American press and government strove to establish a particular perspective on the atomic bombings of Japan. By the end of this course students will have a much better idea about the historical facts, the popular myths, and remaining mysteries related to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS226, SISP257
Prereq: None

HIST260 From Archipelago to Nation State: An Introduction to Japanese History and Culture

How did a string of islands on the eastern edge of Eurasian landmass become today's Japan, an economic and cultural superpower? Starting with prehistoric times, this course looks as how the early cultures and peoples on the Japanese archipelago coalesce to become "Japan" for the first time in the late seventh century and how those cultures and peoples adopt new identities, systems of power relations and economies up to the present. This course reveals the big picture, but to understand it, the factual pixels that constitute it are examined in some detail. Students are expected to think of the course as comprehensive in the same way as mathematics or a language course.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS260
Prereq: None

HIST262 Seeing a Bigger Picture: Integrating Environmental History and Visual Studies

This interdisciplinary course approaches the history of environmental policy and opinion making through a frame that takes seriously the rise in power accorded to visual imagery and visual practices (including photography, digital image production, film and new media) in modern society. The course introduces students to key landmarks in the visual history of environmentalism spanning a period from colonial America to the recent past, focusing both on images of nature and on the nature of images.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: ARHA262, SISP255, ENVS255
Prereq: None

HIST263 Inside Nazi Germany, 1933--1945

This survey course seeks to give a firm historical grounding in the processes that led to Hitler's rise to power, the nature of the National Socialist regime, and the origins and implementation of policies of aggression and genocide. The basic premise of this course is that National Socialism was from the outset driven by a belligerent and genocidal logic. The course will therefore critically analyze the racial, eugenic, and geopolitical ideology of National Socialism and the policies of discrimination, conquest, economic exploitation, and extermination that followed from it. At the same time, the role of structural factors in explaining these outcomes will also be explored in great depth. We will analyze how German society was shaped by Nazism, considering conformity and opposition in the lives of ordinary people in both peacetime and war. The course seeks to impart an awareness of the complex of factors that produced a regime of unprecedented destructiveness and horror, and it aims to develop a critical understanding of the ongoing problems of interpretation that accompany its history. Just as importantly, we will consider the continued relevance of the legacy of National Socialism and the Holocaust to our evaluation of national and international affairs in the 21st century.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: GRST263
Prereq: None

HIST264 Waterways: Maritime World History

Human history has been shaped by the sea. Whether as a source of food, a frontier, a boundary, or a bridge, the sea has represented a site of both opportunity and danger. This course will examine the way humans have responded to their marine and maritime environments, both in terms of the technologies they have developed to navigate and exploit them but also insofar as the sea has shaped the way humans think about themselves. While our inquiry will extend into the deep past and the early development of human culture and civilization, we will focus on maritime history over the past millennium, the development of oceanic worlds, the rise of the "age of sail" between the 16th and 19th centuries, and the transformation of global navigation and politics with the rise of steam, diesel, and nuclear power.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-GOVT
Identical With: ENVS264
Prereq: None

HIST266 American Labor History from 1776 to Recent Times

"By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread," the Lord enjoined in Genesis.

But who did the hard work in the United States? How did they live? How were they organized? To what ends? Why has their power declined in recent times? These questions are explored in this course, which will reach back to the 18th century but highlight the 20th century.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: FGSS265, AMST265
Prereq: None

HIST267 Development in Question: Conservation in Africa

"Why not plant trees?" In 1977 Wangari Maathai started the Green Belt Movement, a popular environmental revolution, in Kenya. Then in the 1990s Nigeria Ken Saro-Wiwa fought for the rights of local communities against the multi-national oil industry. Like many African activists, scientists, and farmers, they placed African experiences at the center of environmental policy and conservation. Yet, popular images of the continent's environment in perpetual crisis blame African practices or disregard African efforts. Such depictions of "desertification" or "over grazing" have impacted international and governmental policy. Recent scholarship suggests that such common perceptions of the environment in Africa and conservation policy are misleading. This course will allow students to critically study the history of environmental management on the continent and the development of the idea of conservation. We will examine game park politics, the history of resource extraction, climate change, and other pressing environmental concerns. We will also study diverse African environmental perspectives from the guardians of sacred forests to activists such as Wangari Maathai and Ken Saro-Wiwa.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: ENVS267
Prereq: None

HIST268 The Origins of Global Capitalism: Economic History, 1400--1800

This course explores how the modern market economy came into being in Europe and why this system expanded outward to bring the rest of the world into its orbit by 1800. Among other things, it seeks to provide answers for why China's economy--perhaps the most sophisticated in the world before 1500--fell into relative stagnation and why Europe was the first region to develop mechanized industry and break out of a poverty trap that had restricted prosperity for millennia. The course begins by exploring late medieval European agriculture, market systems, institutions, and technology to reveal how the paths of economic development taken in Europe began to diverge fundamentally from those taken by societies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. It will explore the role of the spice trade in the expansion of European influence abroad, the significance of new food and cash crops in the development of plantation systems and long-haul trade, the impact of organized coercion in the development of monopolies and monopoly companies, and the role of proto-industrial methods of production and colonial economies in the birth of the Industrial Revolution. The course aims to be accessible, broad, and comparative, drawing insights from many fields to consider the environmental, geographical, cultural, institutional, and political factors shaping the economic changes that have created modern capitalism.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST269 Modern Britain: From Empire to Quagmire, 1688-Present

This course provides a foundational survey of British history from the Revolution of 1688-89 through the upheavals of the late 20th century. It offers a chance to understand the contemporary issues in Britain from the 17th to the 21st centuries by using a variety of primary sources (textual, visual, material) from the period. This course seeks to help students improve their ability to research and create coherent and persuasive written arguments.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST272 Law, Court, and Crime in England, 600--1660

This course will discuss the nature and development of law, dispute resolution, custom, and rule in England from the arrival of the English on the island in the age of Arthur when feud and compensatory justice dominated. It will then examine the rise of royal power, local custom, and the common law in the 12th and 13th centuries, including the Magna Carta crisis. We will focus on the growing politicization of law and the development of courts and lawyers alongside new sorts of lawmaking in parliament and through the power of the king. The growth and challenge of royal and parliamentary power will frame the last parts of the course that anticipate the revolutionary crisis of the 17th century. Along the way, the course will ask, Who gets to make law, what is the role of writing in the development of custom and law, how did the English decide who was right and who wrong: calculation, testimony, jury, or ordeal? What were the forms of punishment and compensation employed, and what did this tell us of conceptions of the person: mutilation, execution, or incarceration? How did social status and gender shape expectations and outcomes in the legal process: Who could be a legal actor, a responsible malefactor, a property owner, or a slave; who could be judge and legislator? The course will be based on the examination both of recent scholarship and a wide array of primary sources such as law codes, court record books, advice manuals, literature, treatises on law, and the practical documents from lawyers in courts and judges that are plentiful in medieval, Tudor, and Stuart England. The course provides a background to the sources of law in early America as well as other common law countries around the world.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST274 Public History

This course introduces students to the theory and practice of history in the public realm--in the museums, archives, historic sites, parks, landscapes, and other places we encounter the past. Through readings, discussions, and hands-on work, we will consider the challenges and opportunities of doing history beyond the classroom and develop our skills in historical interpretation directed at broad audiences. We will ask such questions as: How do we tell stories with objects, text, and images? Whose history are we interpreting? How do we connect with the past in our daily lives? What role can historians play in public discourse? The central assignment of the course will involve developing a local public history project.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST275 Empires on Fire: Revolutions in the Atlantic World

This class will explore what historians have called the "Age of Revolutions." The ideas, ideologies, and actions that set empires aflame during the long 18th century formed an entangled revolutionary experience that spread from one part of the Atlantic world to the next. From England's "Glorious Revolution" in 1688 to the American, French, and Haitian revolutions at the end of the 18th century, and then on to the South American and Canadian uprisings in the early 19th century, this course will examine revolutions not as discrete events but as interrelated processes. By studying the perspectives of leading politicians, regular subjects and citizens, and marginalized groups, students will investigate the wide variety of revolutionary experiences.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST277 Duty, Power, Pleasure, Release: Key Themes in Classical Indian Thought

According to thinkers in classical India, the goals of life were fourfold: encompassing the pursuit of social-moral duty (dharma), economic and political power (artha), bodily pleasure (kama), and, finally, release from the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth (moksha). The four goals provide a useful key for understanding Indian intellectual history in its classical moment--roughly, the half millennium between the second and seventh centuries. This pivotal era witnessed the definition of new forms of social and political thought, the creation of new types of expressive literature in Sanskrit, and the crystallization of the Hindu religion. In this course, we explore classical Indian thought through a variety of theoretical and literary texts articulating the ideas and values of the age. Most of these works were originally written in Sanskrit, the ancient Indian language of culture and power that served as a lingua franca uniting vast portions of Southern Asia. The emphasis is on close reading and discussion of the translated texts themselves and critical engagement with the ideas and values they present.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-ART
Identical With: RELI236, ARHA291
Prereq: None

HIST279 The Making of Modern Japan, 1500 to Present

In a global context, Japan emerged as a major player on the world stage after 1500. While in the midst of what later was called the Warring States Period (sometimes dated 1468--1600), Japanese traders and others maintained a broad network of commerce that included not only Korea and China but spread to Southeast Asia. Europeans first reached Japan in 1543, and it was soon obvious that no European state had the military might to colonize Japan. These are the roots from which a modern Japan appeared that in the 19th and early 20th centuries militarized and set upon an imperial project until defeated at war in 1945. Since then, Japan has emerged as a postmodern, highly technological, pop culture-oriented, and aging country. One theme that will be examined across the semester is environmental change over the long term.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS279
Prereq: None

HIST280 The Industrial Revolution in Global Context: Economic History Since 1800

With the development of mechanized industry in the late 18th century, a productivity revolution was unleashed that would soon spread from Britain to continental Europe, North America, and Japan. By the early 21st century, three successive industrial revolutions had profoundly transformed these societies as well as the rapidly developing economies of East and South Asia. This course analyzes the historical forces driving this process. It begins by studying the transformation of Europe's overwhelmingly rural and agricultural economy into a predominantly urban and industrial one, looking closely at entrepreneurs, technology, and changing trading patterns during various phases of this process. The focus will be on Britain, Germany, the United States, and Japan, considering not only industrial development but also its broader implications, including colonial empire, great power rivalry, protectionism, economic depressions, and warfare, to highlight the complex relationship between economic and political power. The course will also analyze how industrial capitalism survived the disasters of the 20th century to drive a process of regional and global economic integration in the late 20th century. It will conclude by considering the opportunities and challenges posed to the mature industrial economies by the newly emerging industrial powers China and India.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST283 What Is Rationality?

What does it mean to be rational? Although this question has traditionally been the province of philosophy, reference to reason and rationality is also pervasive in the modern social and behavioral sciences. Humans are rational creatures--or, if they are not in practice, they should be. This course takes an expansive view of rationality and its history, tracing how the concept has changed over time, and critically examining its significance in the sciences and broader culture today. From the role of reason in human flourishing and civic discourse in the ancient world, to early modern conceptions of logic as "the art of thinking," to Cold War attempts to build machines that might reason more reliably than frail humans, this exploration of reasoning and rationality explores several interlocking themes: the relationship between reason and other facets of the mind, especially emotion; conceptions of reason as an evaluative vs. a calculating faculty; the role of reason in human judgment; the relationship between rationality and rules; the relationship between choosing rationally and choosing ethically; and the fraught history of attempts to formulate universally valid principles of rationality.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: PHIL154, SISP283
Prereq: None

HIST285 Modern India

This course examines the history, culture, and politics of India since Independence in 1947. We will begin with the trauma of Partition and the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, and end with the rise of Narendra Modi and the "Hindu Right." The approach will combine chronology with investigations of key themes, including caste, class, gender, language, war, separatism, development, dislocation, environment, and religion.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST286 Photography and Law: Mugshots, Privacy and Publicity, Obscenity, Copyright, and Evidence

This seminar is designed as an introduction to the major developments in the legal history of photography in transatlantic (US-UK especially) society from the first law cases involving photography in 1840 through to contemporary legal debates about such topics as cameras in the courtroom, sexting, surveillance, photographing police, dash cam and body cam videos, admissibility of photographs as evidence, obscenity and moral boundaries of subject matter, and copyright. A range of secondary historical and theoretical writings will anchor the discussions, but the course will focus primarily on student analysis and interpretation of primary and archival sources (texts of legal cases, law reviews and dissertation, news articles, and documentary and video footage). Students will gain knowledge of how legal history has shaped the history of photography, and new perspectives on the historical origins of contemporary issues in photography and digital imaging. This course should be of interest especially to history majors and non-majors who are interested in law, photography, and culture and will also contribute to the "Visual and Material Studies" module in History.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: ARHA264
Prereq: None

HIST287 Science in Modernity and After: 20th-Century Science and Technology

This course will examine the intertwined histories of science and technology during the 20th century and beyond through the lens of three key technologies: nuclear weapons, computers, and recombinant DNA. By examining the intellectual, cultural, and social context out of which these technologies emerged and in carrying their story forward almost to the present, the course aims to understand the changing nature of science and technology in modernity and postmodernity.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-GOVT
Identical With: SISP287
Prereq: None

HIST288 Delhi: The Past in the Present

This seminar examines the history of Delhi, one of the largest and oldest cities on the planet. Our focus will be on the ways the layers of Delhi's past protrude into and inform Delhi's present. We will combine a chronological and thematic approach, paying particular attention to material culture, memory, public history, and the environment.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST291 Gender and History: Women Working, the U.S., and Global Capitalism Since 1900 (FGSS Gateway)

This seminar will introduce first- and second-year students to the history of gender, sexuality, and women's paid work in the context of the U.S. and global capitalism since 1900. In this perspective, "U.S." does not denote only the bordered United States, but also a political, economic, and cultural hub for currents of transnational capital and labor. While women have always worked, ideas about "woman's work" shift across race, class, region, and time. Feminist historians have studied gender roles, work, and labor activism, yet recent histories of capitalism too often ignore women's history, gender analysis, and sexualities. Readings will include histories of women in various parts of the world, where they often labored for U.S. enterprises. We will discuss influential theories in the field of gender and sexuality studies and how they apply to the writing of such history. All students interested in gender as a category of historical analysis for their scholarly work in any field, as well as prospective history and feminist, gender, and sexuality studies majors, will benefit from this course.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: COL323, FGSS269
Prereq: None

HIST293 The U.S. Civil War, 1861--1865

This course surveys United States history from the early national period to the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era at the end of the 19th century. Central themes to be addressed will include the struggle over the meanings of democracy and constitutionalism, the transformations resulting from industrialization, as well as continental expansion and expropriation of Indigenous lands. We will also examine the series of reform crusades dedicated to religion, abolition and the changing roles of women. Particular attention will be paid to the formation and consolidation of the United States as both a nation state and as an emergent global imperial power.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST294 Political Fiction

Attitudes toward politics, economics, society, and history will be examined from works of fiction that directly criticize an existing society or that present an alternative, sometimes fantastic, reality.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST296 Colonial Latin America

This course studies the history of Latin America and the Caribbean from pre-conquest times to the emergence of independence movements in the early 19th century. Lectures will explore the key environmental, cultural, economic, political, and religious transformations that shaped colonial societies throughout the region. Beginning with the formation of indigenous and Iberian polities before 1492, we will consider how early modern colonial governance functioned and evolved throughout the period of Spanish and Portuguese rule in the Americas. Through an array of primary and secondary sources we will reconstruct the lived experiences of a diversity of actors across the colonial world. We will pay particular attention to the methods and approaches that scholars have used to understand the history of the region.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST296
Prereq: None

HIST297 Mexican History and Visual Culture from Conquest to the Present

This course offers an introduction to Mexico's history from the conquest of indigenous empires to the present, paying special attention to how images and visual culture--from the Virgin of Guadalupe to patriotic parades to lucha libre--not only reflected, but also shaped, Mexican society and its political development. Through this lens, we explore the construction and unraveling of the colonial system, the emergence of the nation, the upheaval of the first major social revolution of the 20th century and its aftermath, and contemporary events. In addition to providing an introduction to major historical phenomena and debates, this course also familiarizes students with methods for using visual materials to understand and interpret the past.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST257
Prereq: None

HIST298 Oh Canada: Creating the Northern Neighbour, 1776--1896

This course will help answer a pressing question: Why does Canada exist? Students will explore the complicated relationships that shaped America's northern neighbor. With its deep Indigenous heritage, long history of British-French rivalries, and constant influence from the United States, Canada was (and is) a unique democratic experience defined in no small part by its inability to define itself. From the outbreak of the American Revolution until the end of the 19th century, the polyglot inhabitants of loyal British colonies north of the United States constructed a multi-faceted identity that remains the topic of great debate to this day. Students will examine the political, cultural, and social histories that transformed British colonies into the Dominion of Canada founded on what was and still is Indigenous territory.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST301 The Spanish Civil War, 1936--1939

The Spanish Civil War erupted during a decade in Europe marked by ideological tensions, economic and social crises, the weakness of democracies contrasted to the dynamism of dictatorial regimes, and an international climate that culminated in the outbreak of World War II. The ideological character of the civil war in Spain, which appeared to pit left vs. right, or democracy vs. fascism, or nation and religious faith vs. communism and revolution, captured the imagination of Europeans and spurred their involvement in the war. All of Europe's dangers seemed to have exploded in Spain, whatever the specifically Spanish factors that unleashed and defined the struggle. This seminar will examine the events in Spain and Europe's response to them through contemporary writings, such as journalistic and participants' accounts, diplomatic documents, memoirs, films, biographies, and general and specific studies from the 1930s to the present.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST302 Reproductive Politics and the Family in Africa

This course will introduce students to broad discourses and issues related to reproduction and the family in modern Africa. We will study maternal health and technologies of reproduction, but for us reproduction will be an object of historical inquiry. One of the driving questions for this course will be how reproduction has been given meaning socially. How have African societies understood abortion, infanticide, or other medical means of controlling fertility and childbirth? What has been the relationship between the family and the state? We will also examine ideas about sexuality and love, changing notions of parenthood, and what constitutes an ideal family. Finally, we will interrogate how these ideas influenced political practices and ideologies and, in turn, changed conceptions of motherhood, fatherhood, and the family.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: FGSS303
Prereq: None

HIST303 Medievals on the Move: Pilgrimage, Jihad, Crusade, and Apocalypse

Medieval people moved: They traded and sent emissaries; they invaded and migrated; they wandered, begged, and ascended the heavens; they went on crusade, jihad, and pilgrimage. This course will first analyze the most consistently preserved sources on medieval movement: accounts of pious travel "for God's sake and not for pleasure." We will then contextualize such accounts with two other types of movement: the physical journeys of traders, diplomats, and warriors, as well as the interiorized journeys of the prophet, the mystic, and the storyteller. By encompassing this variety we will be able to pursue a larger question: Can patterns of exchange across the physical and cultural barriers of geography, language, religion, and governance reveal a more global medieval world than we usually envision?
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-COL
Identical With: COL308, MDST308
Prereq: None

HIST307 The Economy of Nature and Nations

On many of the key environmental problems of the 21st century, from climate change to biodiversity conservation, the perspectives of ecology and economics often seem poles apart. Ecology is typically associated with a skeptical stance toward economic growth and human intervention in the environment, while economics focuses on understanding (and often, celebrating) human activities of production, consumption, and growth. At the same time, ecology and economics share a common etymology: both words spring from the Greek oikos, or household. They also share much common history. This course thus explores the parallel histories of economics and ecology from the 18th century to the present, focusing on changing conceptions of the oikos over this period, from cameralism's vision of the household as a princely estate or kingdom, continuing through the emergence of ideas about national or imperial economic development, and culminating in the dominant 20th-century recasting of economics as being centrally concerned with problems of resource allocation. Simultaneously, the course explores connections between changes in economics and the emergence of ecological science over this period, from Enlightenment natural history and early musings on the "economy of nature," to the design of markets for carbon credits today.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP307, ENVS307
Prereq: None

HIST310 Moving Through the Revolutionary Age: British Colonies and Early America, 1774--1815

Thomas Jefferson argued in his 1805 inaugural address that boundaries were less important than principles. Regardless of where they lived, Americans were Americans. British colonists were equally mobile and equally sure that their British liberties followed them wherever they went, which in no small part led to the Revolution. In the period during and after the American Revolution, with the creation of states and colonies in northern North America, people and ideas moved with regularity from one region to the next, thus testing Jefferson's ideals and extant imperial bonds. This course will examine the movement of peoples and ideas within and across these new boundaries to explore the idea of mobility as a revolutionary, Native, and loyalist ideal. American settlers wanted to push west, and some later moved north; Natives desired to maintain their migratory patterns and traditional lands; and British Loyalists moved to remain members of--and demand changes within--the British Empire, while also relocating to American states when necessary. The borders that divided colonies and separated states were challenged and ignored as soon as they were created. By exploring the political ideals, territorial claims, and movement of people during and after the American Revolution, students will be encouraged to study the Revolution not as an American event, but rather as a North American process shaped by those who moved through it.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-CHUM
Identical With: CHUM276
Prereq: None

HIST311 Ethnicity and Religion in the Middle East and the Balkans

Starting with Benedict Anderson's "Imagined Communities," this course examines the transition from religious to ethnic identities in the lands of the former Ottoman Empire. To what degree do religious identities continue to shape ethnic ones? What is the role of political elites in transforming identities in the region and how do they seek to create mass movements based on the social memories of their communities? This course will examine both official historiography and folk memory of the past in an effort to understand continuing ethnic and religious tensions in the Balkans and Middle East.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST314 Environmentalism in a Global Age

Over the second half of the 20th century, popular movements in the United States and around the world achieved landmark protections for the environment. Yet in that same period, accelerating globalization and the emergence of transnational environmental issues like acid rain threatened to undercut the effectiveness of national laws and regulations. This seminar investigates how environmental activists have responded to a range of challenges in the global age, from economic development and species conservation to population growth and Malthusian family planning campaigns. As those two examples suggest, environmentalists have engaged with key developments in the modern world, in sometimes troubling ways. Although the subject matter is historical, this course will also focus on what the history of global environmentalism can contribute to contemporary advocacy, not least with regards to climate change.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: ENVS314
Prereq: None

HIST315 Global Histories: Problems in Scale, Scope, Depth, and Time

How big is too big? How far back in time can historians go? How best to understand the relationship between science and history? What counts as evidence? What accounts for the rise (or return, some would argue) of macro-history? What does it portend for the future of microhistory? This advanced seminar will examine the history and historiographical implications of macro-historical frameworks, including comparative history, world history, global history, deep history, and big history.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CHUM341
Prereq: None

HIST317 The Great Game

The "Great Game" was a term that came to stand for the great power struggle for "mastery" in Central Asia during the 19th century, mainly between the British and Russian Empires. The term has also been applied to grand strategy and global geopolitics more broadly, in scenarios as wide-ranging as the ancient Mediterranean and the modern Cold War. More recently we see the term used to describe the U.S. "pivot" to Asia and the rise of the Quadrilateral Group in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as to characterize the thinking behind China's "One Belt One Road" policy. This seminar will examine the history of the Great Game in the 19th century, its wider geopolitical incarnations, and its percolations into literature, academics, and film.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST318 The Politics of Death: The Living, the Dead, and the State

This course will explore the intersections between the living, the dead, and the state, focusing on the ways that death and the dead body raise particular questions and problems for different kinds of political regimes. The course will examine the collisions between the state and the dead, both symbolic and material, by investigating spaces where the state and death intersect in revealing ways: cemeteries, cremation, monuments, rituals, and religious institutions and cultures. The course will also follow, borrowing anthropologist Katherine Verdery's term, "the political lives of dead bodies," the ways in which states mobilize dead bodies to reconfigure the political order.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-CHUM
Prereq: None

HIST319 Crisis, Creativity, and Modernity in the Weimar Republic, 1918--1933

Born in defeat and national bankruptcy; beset by disastrous inflation, unemployment, and frequent changes of government; and nearly toppled by coup attempts, the Weimar Republic (1918--1933) produced some of the most influential and enduring examples of modernism. Whether in music, theater, film, painting, photography, design, or architecture, the Weimar years marked an extraordinary explosion of artistic creativity. New approaches were likewise taken in the humanities, social sciences, psychology, medicine, science, and technology, and new ideas about sexuality, the body, and the role of women were introduced. Nevertheless, Weimar modernism was controversial and generated a backlash that caused forces on the political right to mobilize to ultimately bring down the republic. This advanced seminar explores these developments and seeks to understand them within their political, social, and economic contexts to allow for a deeper understanding of Weimar culture and its place within the longer-term historical trajectory of Germany and Europe. This perspective allows for an appreciation of the important links between Weimar modernism and Imperial Germany, as well as an awareness of some of the important continuities between the Weimar and Nazi years.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CJST319, GRST264
Prereq: None

HIST321 Media and Power in Latin America: From Quipus to Twitter

This interdisciplinary seminar explores how media technologies have shaped Latin American societies and politics from the colonial encounter to the dawn of the digital age. Investigating the local histories of indigenous forms such as the Andean knotted quipu and scribal texts, along with newspapers, radio, photography and social media, we examine how Latin Americans made and used these technologies to assert power, claim status, and launch protests. Through brief theoretical readings and historical case studies, we explore such themes as the relationship between colonialism and the written word, the enduring legacy of alternative indigenous literacies, the importance of rumor and oral communication in societies with low literacy rates, and the role of mass media in identity formation and contemporary social movements.

Structured in part as a lab, the class will be organized around producing a physical and digital exhibition of Latin American media materials available in Wesleyan's collections, to be displayed for the broader university community and beyond. We will produce this exhibition over the course of the semester, integrating individual research projects into our broader collective project that will be conducted as a collaborative/team effort. Along the way we will experiment with hands-on activities that might include making quill pens, setting type, and operating a printing press, take field trips to examine rare media materials first hand, and learn from on-campus experts as we develop our public exhibition.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST320
Prereq: None

HIST322 Exploration, Conquest, and Insurrection: The History of the Amazon 1542 to Present

Dark, wild, primitive, Edenic and infinitely wealthy: the Amazon has been many things in many times and places. From the disgruntled Spanish conquistadors who first traversed the jungle's rivers in search of cinnamon, to the 19th-century scientific expeditions of enlightened explorers, to contemporary environmentalists, the Amazon remains a mysterious object of inquiry. It still incites the imagination of travelers, filmmakers, and politicians alike. This seminar investigates the multiple ways in which the Amazon and its peoples have been portrayed in chronicles, scientific writings, and film. We will confront the historical circumstances, motives and ideologies that prompted each of these depictions and how, in turn, they shaped the colonization of the region. We will pay close attention to genre, and to themes such as cross-cultural encounter, imperialism, and the representation of indigenous societies. We begin in 1542 with the chronicle of Francisco de Orellana. As the first Spaniard to navigate the entire length of the Amazon River, Orellana influenced how Europeans imagined the jungle well into the 19th century. Subsequently, we apply readings in history of science and anthropological theory to Claude Lévi-Strauss account of Amazonian tribes in Tristes Tropiques (1955). Students will then conduct independent research into a representation of their interest. Possible topics include scientific expeditions in the region, the jungle and modernization, global warming, or human rights. Finally, we will reflect on the Amazon as a metaphor for the human condition with Werner Herzog's film Fitzcarraldo (1982).
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST322
Prereq: None

HIST323 Religion and History

This course will examine some ways that scholars have understood the role of religion in history. Readings will reflect a wide variety of theoretical, theological, and disciplinary perspectives.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: RELI298
Prereq: None

HIST324 Homelands and First Nations: Native Worlds in North America

This class will investigate the story of Natives discovering Europeans. It is a difficult story to tell, because few indigenous inhabitants left written records describing what it was like when ships arrived on the shores and the men and women disembarked, established settlements, and began the process of expanding across the continent. Some encounters were peaceful, while others were violent. Every encounter, however, can be understood by studying Native societies and their worldviews. Far from static and unchanging groups, indigenous nations were constantly adapting to their physical and spiritual world. This class will use primary and secondary sources to explore North America from the Native perspective, including the rise and fall of great societies before the arrival of Europeans, strategies of contact and exchange after 1500, and the quest to maintain authority and independence during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST327 Emperor, Caliph, King: Comparing the Byzantines, Abbasids, and Carolingians

This seminar investigates a unique "age of empires" in the wider Mediterranean world--the ninth century--during which imperializing political revolutions inspired intense cultural production among the Byzantines in Constantinople, the Abbasids in Baghdad, and the Carolingians across Europe. Using the cultural artifacts surviving from these "renaissances," we will investigate how political cultures accounted for their own contested identities through myths of rebirth and return, specifically of Greek, Roman, and Persian imperial traditions. The course uses a workshop environment that relies on both collaboration and independent research; students will apply skills of analysis, creative thinking, and persuasive communication to presentations and a (in-translation) source-based research project.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-COL
Identical With: COL347, CHUM315
Prereq: None

HIST330 American Utopias in the 19th Century

This seminar will examine expressions, both religious and secular, of the utopian impulse in 19th-century American culture. Communitarian experiments launched by Shakers, transcendentalists, perfectionists, and feminists will be studied as manifestations of social and religious turmoil and will be compared with their literary analogues. Utopianism as a philosophical, literary, and literal approach to solving social problems and constructing a more perfect nation-state has been a persistent and recurrent feature in American history. This seminar explores precursors in the long 19th century to more recent utopian theory and experimentation.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: RELI330, AMST330
Prereq: None

HIST333 Appeasement and the Origins of the Second World War

In this study of Europe's crisis, 1933-1939, from Hitler's appointment as chancellor of Germany to the outbreak of the Second World War, attention will focus upon the reassertion of German power and its effects upon the diplomacy and politics of Great Britain and France. Specific topics will include Hitler's aims and actions; critical events concerning the Rhineland, Spain, Czechoslovakia, and Poland; pacifism and the French Left; Neville Chamberlain and British conservatism; and the debate over the immediate origins of the war in 1939. Readings will include memoirs and contemporary diplomatic documents, newspapers, and journals.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST334 Social History of Islam in Africa

The history of Islam in Africa spans 14 centuries, and Islam continues to play a central role in shaping contemporary African societies. In this course, we will examine the long social history of Islam on the continent. Islamic expression in Africa is diverse. We will explore the dynamic ways in which Islam has influenced local cultures and politics as well as the various ways in which individual Africans and African communities have made Islam their own. Topics of discussion include early trade and state formation; Islamic education, literacy, and conversion; the role of women in Muslim societies; Islamic cultural productions; Muslim responses to colonialism; and the contemporary development of political Islam. We will end the course by reflecting on the responses of Africans to contemporary changes in the wider Muslim world.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST335 Nature, Science, and Empire in Early Latin America

This seminar will introduce students to a diversity of scientific practices that flourished in the Hispanic World between 1400 and 1800. We will begin by analyzing how a debate known as the "polemic of Spanish Science," together with the Black Legend conditioned the ways in which colonial Latin American science was traditionally approached. From available studies we will then survey some of the significant contributions to botany, astronomy, medicine, and metallurgy of Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations. From there we will read an array of primary and secondary sources in order to reconstruct the varied, and often eclectic knowledge gathering and knowledge making practices that missionaries, humanists, and crown-officials devised to understand the natural world. We will pay close attention to their particular goals and methods and the manner in which they were influenced by the encounter with foreign peoples, the dynamics of conquest and colonization, the movement of books and commodities, and institutions of censorship and patronage.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST335
Prereq: None

HIST337 Mystical Traditions in Islam

Muslim scholars today often condemn the mystical traditions of Sufism as being un-Islamic. But for almost 1,000 years, mysticism provided an alternative voice to Muslim believers. This course will explore the origins and development of Sufism and its extraordinary impact on the cultural life of Muslims over the past millennium.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: RELI355
Prereq: None

HIST338 History and Theory

This seminar will explore the contemporary theory and philosophy of history, giving special attention to the publications of "History and Theory," the academic journal owned and edited by Wesleyan University faculty for the past 50 years. We might discuss such topics as the nature of historical truth; history as a science, with laws, and as an art, with style; the nature of historical time; gender history; agency and causation; history of the emotions; and history's moral imperatives; as well as the ramifications of the postmodern turn. We will give special attention to recent arguments about the theory of history and the nature of the past.

Key figures are likely to include Walter Benjamin, R. G. Collingwood, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Hayden White, Frank Ankersmit, Barbara Rosenwein, Joan Scott, and Dominick LaCapra.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST341 Body Histories in Africa

African bodies have long generated intrigue and misunderstanding. Outside observers, such as missionaries, travelers, colonial administrators, and anthropologists, have documented practices such as scarification and spirit possession as they simultaneously rendered their African practitioners "other." All too often the body as an instrument for creative expression, ritual healing, or social action was lost in translation. More recently Western feminists have focused their attentions on female circumcision. The persistence of circumcision (for both girls and boys) and other bodily practices speaks to their enduring social value and symbolic meaning. What can we learned from these and other body histories in Africa? In this course we will examine embodied rituals such as spirit possession, which marks the body as a site for human engagement with the supernatural. The widespread practice is also a gendered technique of healing documenting shifting understandings of health and illness. In addition, we will study the practice of "sitting on a man" by which women addressed the body politic through dance and collective nudity. The revealed body in motion shamed men into action and has been employed in the 21st century to shame oil companies for their greed and environmental destruction. In this and other examples, we will approach the body as an archive: it is an archive in motion and subject to social renewal. Our embodied evidence will allow us to explore shifting histories of religion, art, sexuality, the economy, and politics from the precolonial era to the contemporary moment. By taking the body as our lens we will also learn new ways to examine the African past through histories of aesthetics, value, labor, hierarchy, and knowledge production.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: None
Identical With: CHUM349
Prereq: None

HIST342 The Rise of the Conservative Movement in the United States Since 1945

"So inevitable, yet so unexpected," Alexis de Tocqueville declared, referring to the French Revolution of 1789. The same is true of the conservative movement that developed in the United States during the second half of the 20th century. What is the nature of modern American conservatism? How and why did it emerge? What are its social bases? How has conservatism evolved in America since the 1930s? What sort of varieties and conflicts exist within the movement? How did mid- and late-20th-century American conservatives compare to earlier sorts of conservatism in America in the early Republic, the antebellum South, modern American liberalism, and political conservative parties in Europe and Britain? What is the historical significance of the movement?
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST348 Urban Histories of Latin America

Cities have occupied Latin American writers, artists, and scholars since the early decades of the sixteenth century. Mapped on to preexisting settlements of indigenous importance, colonial cities became the center of Iberian administration in the New World. They imparted justice, granted citizenship rights, set the standard of civility and religious orthodoxy, and held the promise of economic improvement. The preeminence of cities in Latin America continued into the modern period. Mexico, Buenos Aires, and Rio de Janeiro became opulent and unequal metropolitan centers in the nineteenth century. Unconstrained growth brought about the megalopolises of our current day.

This seminar will explore Latin America's major urban centers in significant moments from the pre-Hispanic period until the present day. Through chronicles, travel narratives, photography, legal writings, newspaper archives, maps, and film we will reconstruct the many dimensions of urban culture in the region. The course will be organized thematically and geographically. We will begin by studying the ways in which Latin American writers have understood the role of the city, and its dwellers, in shaping the trajectory of their various nations. We will pay particular attention to themes like the city and modernity, the every-day experiences of urban residents, racial, gender, and social inequality, the city as a site of historical memory and violent contestation, the environmental challenges of urban growth, and the rise and fall of counter-cultural and protest movements.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST348
Prereq: None

HIST349 Comparing Revolutions: The United States and Early Canada, 1774--1815

The American Revolution didn't just create the United States. Loyalists fled to British colonies in what would become Canada, while Native nations reasserted their sovereignty over ancestral homelands. British, French, American, and Indigenous peoples in North America expanded (or moved) west, established new communities, and struggled to retain (or create) new identities.

Students in this seminar will read widely in the literature of the revolutionary era as it pertains to American, Canadian, and Native groups and will undertake specifically comparative research as part of Professor Lennox's larger book project. What did Benjamin Franklin think of Montreal? Where did Iroquoia go after 1783? How did the creation of states such as Vermont compare to the division of Quebec the same year? What impact did David Thompson's exploration for the Hudson's Bay Company have on Lewis and Clark? By combining close reading of the most recent literature with in-depth exploration of primary sources, this seminar will encourage students to consider the Revolution as a continental rather than national event.
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-CHUM
Identical With: CHUM318
Prereq: None

HIST353 The Communist Experience in the 20th Century

Two decades have passed since the collapse of Communism, its empire, and its utopian vision of the kingdom of heaven on Earth. Indeed, the Communist collapse was heralded as not just the end of the Cold War but the end of history itself. Yet how do we understand the nature of the communist way of life, the causes of its decline, and the meaning of its demise? This course will trace the development of Communism's answer to capitalist modernity from the 1917 Revolution through the Soviet collapse. It will seek to shed light on the birth, life, and death of Communist modernity through history, literature, and art, by exploring the world socialism created as an ideological model and a way of life. The emphasis of the course will be on the lived experience of Communism, primarily within the Soviet Union, but also beyond it (in Eastern Europe and Asia). In the global conflict between capitalism and Communism, how did people understand the competing demands of ideology and reality, individual and society, private and public, production and consumption, labor and leisure? How did the state manage the contradictions that arose when lofty ideologies encountered everyday life, and how did citizens make sense of these ideological transformations? What killed Communism: bombs and diplomacy, or refrigerators and Finnish shoes?
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: REES353
Prereq: None

HIST355 The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: A Research Seminar

This fall is the centennial of the 1918 influenza pandemic, which swept around the globe that year and caused an estimated 40 million deaths worldwide. It caused more deaths in the 20th century than any other event except World War II. In this seminar we will examine this pandemic from multiple perspectives with the goal of defining how understanding it changed from the time it occurred to the present. In class, we will examine contemporary journalistic and scientific accounts and various secondary sources, with the goal of establishing a starting point for student research projects that will be completed over the second half of the semester. We will explore sources in Olin Special Collections, various digital archives, Middletown and Connecticut State archives, and other collections as available. Possible outcomes for the class can be a paper, documentary, exhibition, or web resource.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP355
Prereq: None

HIST357 Regulators: The Administrative State in Modern America

This seminar explores the history of the modern administrative state in the United States from the Great Society to the Trump Administration as a mechanism for governing capitalism. The course explores the political history of administrative agencies like the Occupational Health and Safety Administration, the intellectual history of the circulation of ideas about markets, the popular history of public attitudes regarding competition and risk, and the economic history of the past eighty years. Students will consider regulation and regulatory agencies in relation to juridical and legislation intervention, developing an appreciation for the regulatory state as a distinct form of governance. Students will also track the public and private response of regulated industries, learning why some business interests welcomed regulation even as they publicly decried government overreach. The course will demonstrate the value of a historical understanding of regulatory interventions and will show students how that historical knowledge can provide critical insight into contemporary issues.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST358 Ireland: History Remembered and Forgotten

The writing of history is often a political act. Perhaps nowhere has the practice been as politicized as in Ireland where the two competing traditions on the island, Nationalist/Catholic and Loyalist/Protestant, have advanced their respective cause through the appeal to history so that two very different narratives of the island's past have emerged. This course will examine the history of Ireland from the rebellion of 1641 to the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. In doing so, we will see how differing memories of the past have shaped how members of both communities respond to their present. History here will be broadly defined as being both the formal production of historical texts by scholars and history as it is remembered by ordinary people in stories and songs. Finally, we will examine the "Revisionist" school of Irish history that has sought since the 1970s to put forward a unified narrative of Ireland's past. Did those efforts lead to peace?
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST362 Issues in Contemporary Historiography

This course is designed to introduce history majors to a range of problems, debates, and critical practices in the discipline of history. Part I will explore varieties of evidence and problems of interpretation; Part II will provide a close examination of a historical problem using primary sources; and Part III will consider methods of and models in the construction of historical explanation.

This course should be taken in junior year.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST366 A History of Incarceration in the United States

This course examines the history of incarceration in the United States from the 18th century to the late 20th century. It begins with history of indentured servitude in the colonial era and then considers the intensification of the enslavement of blacks in the 19th century as well as the expansion of prisons in the 20th century. The course seeks to engage how systems of confinement accompanied the development of a political system based on the languages of liberty.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CSPL366
Prereq: None

HIST367 Life of Modern Fact

Facts aren't born; they are made. The challenge is to understand how people have come to think of facts as existing in the world independent of human intervention. This seminar explores the tools and techniques that people have used to craft facts. We consider examples from the 18th century through the present day, such as training manuals, films, and instruments. We also examine how broader structures such as social networks and the law help produce facts as people share, defend, and use them. Finally, this course encourages skepticism and creativity in the use of primary sources and the formulation of original research, questioning the givens of human knowledge.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP367
Prereq: None

HIST369 Issues in the Environmental History of Japan

Many people continue to voice the idea that the Japanese have a special relationship with nature while thinking, for example, of Japanese gardens and the deification of natural objects such as trees and rocks. The triple disaster of earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear meltdown that occurred in 2011 has challenged that perspective. Yet few are aware of the tremendous human impact on the environment of the Japanese archipelago and its surrounding regions in both premodern and modern times. In this course we will place Japanese environmental history into a wider context while examining how economic, social, and cultural forces have had an impact on the natural environment. Topics include premodern deforestation and water management, the toxic effluvia of mining, mercury poisoning, nuclear contamination, and changes in disease patterns.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST370 Disease and Health in Modern Asia

While this course might seem highly focused and specialized at first glance, it is intended for students of all majors and backgrounds. It has two main goals. The first is to explore the influence of epidemics and diseases more broadly over the course of East Asian history while keeping a global context in mind. The focus is on China and Japan, but Korea will be included when possible. The second is to consider how historically, diseases and epidemics are best understood through multiple disciplinary approaches, including biology, epidemiology, anthropology, sociology, and iconcology. Colonialism and empire--both Western and Japanese--are, of course, underlying themes throughout. We will examine several important historiographical and methodological approaches as well as some basic issues in the history of science and some important examples of specific diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, and plague from different approaches using both secondary and primary sources.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP370, CEAS272
Prereq: None

HIST371 Fascism

This seminar aims to identify varieties and components of fascist ideologies and to undertake comparative analysis of European fascist movements in the first half of the 20th century. The initial focus will be on the several ways fascism has been defined and understood, including examples of how the term has been utilized to characterize certain governments and personalities. Specific attention then will be devoted to Italy, Germany, Spain, and France, with emphasis on Mussolini and Hitler and their regimes. Additionally, apparent linkages of fascism to post-1945 politics, such as the National Front in France, will be explored. Other fascist movements may be chosen as the subject of a major research paper. Materials for the seminar will include documentary sources, films, interpretive studies, and biographies.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST373 Language and Power in Latin America

What is a perfect language? Societies across the globe, in different times and places, have sought to answer this question. In the process they have posited a diversity of theories about the relationships among language, individual and group identity, social harmony, religious devotion, and political power. This seminar investigates the ways in which Latin American societies, from the colonial period until the present, grappled with the problem of language and its ability to shape their communities. From indigenous polities, to the imperial monarchies that conquered and colonized the Americas, to the nation-states that emerged in the 19th century, all have had to confront the realities of a diverse and profoundly multilingual region.

The course will be organized around representative case studies. It will draw from a variety of fields (e.g., linguistics, philosophy, history, anthropology, and history of science) to consider how language served as either a resource or an obstacle to be surmounted in the creation of ideal religious, political, and intellectual communities in Latin America. Significant themes include the role of language in conquest and colonization, the development of cultural institutions to regulate and standardize language usage, the prevalence of bilingualism in many regions, the proliferation of literacy campaigns as a hallmark of the revolutionary governments of the mid-20th century, and the emergence of indigenous peoples as social and political actors in contemporary Latin America.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: LAST373
Prereq: None

HIST374 Food Security: History of an Idea

The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations has held that "food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life." This course is a history of food insecurity as a material condition and a geopolitical concept for explaining uneven access to provisions. Although we begin with the emergence of food security as a concept during World War II, we will spend the majority of the course studying other ways of organizing access to the means of subsistence. Topics discussed will include why human beings share food, the invention of agriculture, transportation infrastructure, international trade, food aid, agricultural research and development, poverty, conflict, and famine.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP374
Prereq: None

HIST377 Comparative French Revolutions

This course makes a systematic, comparative analysis of the causes, patterns, and consequences of revolutionary activities in France, examining the revolutions of 1789, 1830, 1848, and 1870. The course will emphasize revolutionary movement organizations, political and social goals, ideology, and industrialization.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: FIST377
Prereq: None

HIST380 Labor and Religion in American History

This seminar will explore how religious faith, ideas, and organizations influenced labor over the course of American history since the Industrial Revolution. It will begin with Old and New Testaments, Marx and Engels, and some of the path-breaking work on religion in the English working-class, then focus on America including the social gospel, Christian socialism, the Catholic Church and labor unions, black churches, immigrant churches, militant secularism (itself a kind of faith), the influence of faith of employers and mediators, and other aspects of the subject.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: AMST299
Prereq: None

HIST381 Japan's Nuclear Disasters

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 are central to the history of the 20th century. This course examines the scientific, cultural, and political origins of the bombs; their use in the context of aerial bombings and related issues in military history; the decisions to use them; the human cost to those on whom they were dropped; and their place in history, culture, and identity politics to the present. Sources will include works on the history of science; military, political, and cultural history; literary and other artistic interpretations; and a large number of primary source documents, mostly regarding U.S. policy questions. In addition, we will be examining the development of the civilian nuclear industry in Japan with a focus on the nuclear meltdowns in Fukushima and other accidents. This is an extremely demanding course.

This interdisciplinary, experiential, and experimental course combines studio learning (movement studies and interdisciplinary, creative exploration) and seminars (presentations and discussions). No previous dance or movement study is required, and the course is not particularly geared toward dancers or performers. However, your willingness to experiment on and share movement is important. We encourage you to think about movement as a method of accessing human experiences and making distance malleable, a way to explore your own sensations, thoughts, and reactions in learning history.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.50
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP381, CEAS384, DANC381, ENVS381
Prereq: None

HIST382 Anthropocene as Modern Grand Narrative

The Anthropocene refers to the new age in which humankind started to have a significant impact in altering or rupturing the Earth's system, and the Earth is now moving out of its current geological epoch (the Holocene) and into "a less biologically diverse, less forested, much warmer, and probably wetter and stormier state." (Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007, Sciences Module, 614). This course begins by examining the debates on the definition and periodization. It then explores precursors to the concept of the Anthropocene, such as Confucian and Daoist writings on the taming of the natural environment for human needs, the catastrophism vs. uniformitarianism debate, and contesting definitions of sustainability. Finally, it looks at how recent works of environmental history engaged with the concept of the Anthropocene and brought our attention to the impact of the transition from organic economy to carbon economy. Is the Anthropocene a new meta-narrative that professes to be the theory that explains all human activity? Is the Anthropocene a call to arms for environmental justice? Is the Anthropocene just a declensionist fairy tale--one that leads us down a dead end, throwing up our arms in resignation over the irreversible destruction of the natural environment?
Offering: Crosslisting
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: HA-CHUM
Identical With: SISP382, CHUM307
Prereq: None

HIST383 French Existentialism and Marxism

This course is a study of French thinkers of the 20th century who challenged and reevaluated the principles upon which Western society was based, with an emphasis on the problems and theories concerning the standards of moral action, the nature of political knowledge, political engagement, ethical relativity, free will, and determination.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST386 History of Science and Technology in Modern China

Science, technology, and medicine played an integral role in the China's transition to modernity and inspired dramatic economic, social, and political transformations. As scholars of modern China developed a keen interest in transnational histories and comparative methodologies, they have paid closer attention to the histories of science, technology, and medicine. This course introduces students to this emerging field of study. It examines broad philosophical questions that motivate the research in history of those areas. We will learn to explore science, technology, and medicine in China on "its own terms" by understanding how the unique political and social challenges of modern China shaped Chinese science.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS222, SISP285
Prereq: None

HIST387 History of the End

How will it end? Scientific hubris, a nuclear event, an asteroid, environmental disaster, overpollution, resource scarcity, commodity price spikes, riots, social chaos, social control? This seminar investigates how people have imagined apocalypse and post-apocalypse over time, on the premise that fantasies of the end provide a window into the anxieties of the societies that produce them.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP387, ENVS387
Prereq: None

HIST392 The Acceleration of Europe: Mobility and Communication, 1000-­-1700

This research course explores the thesis that during the Middle Ages, Europeans began to move faster, to move more often, and, by doing so, transformed the nature of social life, cultural life, and the character of selves and minds in the world. The course will explore the material aspects of this, such as the nature and development of roads and bridges, ships and canals, inns and hospitality that sustained and encouraged advancing travel. Thematic importance will be given to the place of horses and horseriding in these developments. The course is about the history of communication and the idea that a particular sort of traveler was created through later medieval travel and became the means of cultural and psychological acceleration. The social and cognitive networks established through travel, including the exchange of letters and messages, linked the local to the national. Merchants, pilgrims, soldiers, judges, students, preachers, and bureaucrats became the means of spreading news, changing views, and speeding up the world. This course will expose students to methods and skills in the digital humanities such as network analysis, geographic information systems, and database analysis.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Prereq: None

HIST393 Materia Medica: Drugs and Medicines in America

This course investigates the identification, preparation, and application of drugs and medicines in the United States, emphasizing the period before the 20th-century institutionalization of corporate research and development. Topics include early modern European prospecting for medicinal plants, the development of an international drug trade, and the formation of national pharmaceutical markets in the Untied States in the 19th century. Participants will explore the production, circulation, and restriction of medical knowledge through local practice, public and private institutions, trade and commerce, and regulation. In addition to knowledge of the social history of drugs and medicines in the United States, students are expected to develop competencies in historical research using primary and secondary sources. The final weeks of the course are devoted to applying historical knowledge to contemporary debates in global public health, including international pharmaceutical research, drug development, and epidemic disease.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: SISP393, AMST393
Prereq: None

HIST394 Seminar: Topics in the History of Europe Since 1945

This seminar is devoted to study of selected topics in the history of Europe after the Second World War. These will include the end of the war in 1945; the origins and developments of the Cold War, 1945--1962; France and the war in Algeria; de Gaulle's Fifth Republic and the events of 1968; Spain since 1975; Germany's ascendancy; the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union; the European Union; and contemporary Europe.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: None
Prereq: None

HIST395 "If there is no God, then everything is permitted?" Moral Life in a Secular World

In Fyodor Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov, Dmitri Karamazov famously poses the question of what would happen to mankind "without God and immortal life," asking whether this means that "all things are permitted." Made famous by Dostoevsky, the question of whether we can be moral without God has always haunted secularism and has consistently been the most vocal criticism of unbelief. From papal condemnations of secularism and "godless Soviets," to the contemporary consensus that belief in God is evidence of moral goodness and its absence a sign of a broken ethical barometer, the assumption has been that transcendental authority is all that stands between us and moral abyss. When the atrocities committed by "totalitarian" regimes are cited as evidence of this, it is only the most radical articulation of a broader narrative of secular modernity.

One of modernity's master narratives is that people go from being under the care of the church to being under the care of the state, and our focus will be on historical cases where the question of secular values was explicitly engaged by the state. We will examine individual and collective articulations of morality in three prominent models of secularism: American civil religion, French laïcité, and Communist official atheism. What constitutes the moral foundation of a world without God? Can religion's moral and spiritual function be performed by a different kind of belief system?
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: REES344, RELI393
Prereq: None

HIST399 History and Geography

Maps are part of a broader family of value-laden images. This is a research seminar about the global history of cartography from 1490s to the recent past. We will study maps from the early modern and modern world and examine how maps were used as instruments of political power, shaped the imagination of peoples around the world, and inspired new ways to imagine our self-identity.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: SBS-HIST
Identical With: CEAS214, ENVS399, SISP399
Prereq: None

HIST401 Individual Tutorial, Undergraduate

Topic to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST402 Individual Tutorial, Undergraduate

Topic to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST403 Department/Program Project or Essay

Project to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F

HIST404 Department/Program Project or Essay

Project to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F

HIST407 Senior Tutorial (downgraded thesis)

Downgraded Senior Thesis Tutorial - Project to be arranged in consultation with the tutor. Only enrolled in through the Honors Coordinator.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F

HIST408 Senior Tutorial (downgraded thesis)

Downgraded Senior Thesis Tutorial - Project to be arranged in consultation with the tutor. Only enrolled in through the Honors Coordinator.
Offering: Host
Grading: A-F

HIST409 Senior Thesis Tutorial

Topic to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST410 Senior Thesis Tutorial

Topic to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST411 Group Tutorial, Undergraduate

Topic to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST412 Group Tutorial, Undergraduate

Topic to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST419 Student Forum

Student-run group tutorial, sponsored by a faculty member and approved by the chair of a department or program.
Offering: Host
Grading: Cr/U

HIST420 Student Forum

Student-run group tutorial, sponsored by a faculty member and approved by the chair of a department or program.
Offering: Host
Grading: Cr/U

HIST423 Advanced Research Seminar, Undergraduate

Advanced research tutorial; project to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST424 Advanced Research Seminar, Undergraduate

Advanced research tutorial; project to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST465 Education in the Field, Undergraduate

Students must consult with the department and class dean in advance of undertaking education in the field for approval of the nature of the responsibilities and method of evaluation.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST466 Education in the Field, Undergraduate

Students must consult with the department and class dean in advance of undertaking education in the field for approval of the nature of the responsibilities and method of evaluation.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST467 Independent Study, Undergraduate

Credit may be earned for an independent study during a summer or authorized leave of absence provided that (1) plans have been approved in advance, and (2) all specified requirements have been satisfied.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 2.00
Gen Ed Area: None
Prereq: None

HIST469 Education in the Field, Undergraduate

Students must consult with the department and class dean in advance of undertaking education in the field for approval of the nature of the responsibilities and method of evaluation.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT
Credits: 1.00
Gen Ed Area: None
Prereq: None

HIST491 Teaching Apprentice Tutorial

The teaching apprentice program offers undergraduate students the opportunity to assist in teaching a faculty member's course for academic credit.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST492 Teaching Apprentice Tutorial

The teaching apprentice program offers undergraduate students the opportunity to assist in teaching a faculty member's course for academic credit.
Offering: Host
Grading: OPT

HIST496 Research Apprentice, Undergraduate

Project to be arranged in consultation with the tutor.
Offering: Host
Grading: Cr/U